Sunday, July 24, 2011

Short Cycle, Agile, Level of Effort efforts, and Changes in Roles and Responsibilities

In a recent post I briefly discussed the changes in roles and emphasis when a development or transformation effort changes from a waterfall (Big Bang) effort to a short cycle-agile effort.  This post will discuss the topic in more detail in terms of a Short-Cycle, Agile, Level of Effort projects and programs.

Short Cycle
A development and transformation effort is a program or project that is changing some process, component, procedure, or tooling that supports an organization's Vision, Mission, and Strategies.  There are two types of efforts, Big Bang, and Short Cycle.  Big Bang development and transformation processes are straight line processes (see my post Product Architecture Thinking Versus System Architecture Thinking) in which there series of steps from requirements identification, through design, implementation, validation, and roll out.  It delivers the product in a single delivery--one Big Bang.

Alternatively, the Short Cycle (1 to 3 months) development and transformation process is a process that delivers the functional of the total product or system in small increments through a series of short duration development or transformation cycles.  Typically, the deliverable from the first cycle (a one month cycle) is "usable", after a fashion, and is called the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) of the system. 

I've found that the IOC will consist of the initial version of the system's access control together with a minimal set of input screens with associated data stores.  The reason for this IOC functional architecture is that security of an operational system is normally a "business" requirement; it's not wise to operate an open system.  Second, you need to "put garbage in" to "get garbage out."  If the team builds a report during the first cycle with no way to insert data to support the report, then the system is not operational in any sense.  However, if you build input screens with associated data store during the first cycle, then the customer can start inserting data during the second, while the team will likely be adding to the number of input screens and developing at least one report or information display.  My experience has been that it will take the customer about a month to get enough data in to have usable reports and output displays.  This means that by the end of the second cycle the system will be producing at least a minimum ROI for the customer.  This ROI will increase with each subsequent short cycle, which delights most customers.

The Agility of an organization  is defined as "its ability to successfully respond to unexpected challenges and opportunities".  The "successfully respond" phrase has two dimensions: making the right decision and making a timely decision.  Various components of the US military have a saying  "improvise, adapt, and overcome" that embodies the concept of agility.  This has long been a tradition of the US military.  For example, the Allies won D-Day in part, because they were much more agile.  That is, the NCOs, junior officers, and field grade officers improvised new tactics, based the manpower and equipment available, to achieve the initial mission of creating a beach head, when all of the plans for the invasion were breaking down--the capture of Omaha Beach is the seminal example.  On the other hand, the German forces followed their defense plans as closely as possible.  Consequently, senior officers were asking permission to move units to defend the coast.  By the time Hitler, hundreds of miles away, made the decision to release the panzer units, the Allies had enough units ashore to defend the beach head. 

The same definition of Agility can be used for a development or transformation process.  If a process is founded on the assumption that "All of the customer's System Requirements are known up front" then I would suggest that the process is rigid and inflexible--a totally brittle process.  That is, if new customer System Requirements are discovered as the development or transformation team is designing and implementing the system, then a formal Engineering Change Order (ECO) process (with contractual changes) is required.  All of this "administriva" costs time and resources that the team could otherwise use to create more of the product or system the customer wants.  Consequently, the customer will identify only those new requirements that will make the product or system completely unusable if not met.  This leads to poor systems and unhappy customers.  This is in contrast, agile processes based on "Not all the customer's System Requirements are known up front" so as to support the inclusion of new requirements as the system develops.

Level of Effort
Short cycle, agile development and transformation efforts require using the Level of Effort (LOE) pattern of contractual management rather than any other type.

What is a Level of Effort Project or Program?
A Level of Effort (LOE) program or project is one where the budget for the effort is spent uniformly across the duration of the effort.  Therefore, the amount of development or transformation work is uniform across the effort's duration.  This differs from the Big Bang style of development in that, normally, the Big Bang starts with a small team performing the initiation tasks, builds up the effort during detailed design and component and assembly verification and reduces the effort during post-roll out product or service support.  If the product has too many defects the PM as the ability to add personnel and use up the budget faster.

With a LOE project or program, the PM does not have that ability.  Instead, if the design team has under estimated the complexity or risk in meeting a requirement, they have the ability to refactor the requirement into two or more requirements.  They can then complete the first of these during the current segment and the others during later segments.  The fact that I'm using the term segment implies that I think that an LOE effort can only be successfully used with short cycle efforts; each segment being a cycle.  So, in short cycle, agile, LOE efforts, the System Requirements are the variable, while the budget and schedule are held as constants.

Why is it important?
Currently most efforts are still in the Big Bang style because most formal processes are of that type.  These processes include all of the required intermediate artifacts like a project plan, schedule, PDR, CDR, EWBS, IWBS, documentation for PMRs, ECOs, weekly status reports, and so on.  The reason I call these intermediate artifacts (or work products) is that they have no lasting value for the customer.

For example, since LOE projects and programs produces a uniform amount of output for each equal segment of these development or transformation efforts, there is little need for metrics like "Earned Value".  This is particularly true in short cycle development and transformation efforts where the customer can see and use the work products.  If properly performed at the end of each cycle, be it monthly or every 3 months, either the IOC version or an upgrade is rolled out.  It can be rolled out into the operational environment, or in some cases into a preproduction environment (an environment where the customer can use the new system in parallel with the old system).  Since the customer can use the IOC or upgraded system, what is the purpose of metrics like the "Earned Value" metrics (since the goal of the EV metrics is to show progress)?

Changes in Roles and Responsibilities of the Team
If, as I've experienced, there is little need for most intermediate artifacts supporting the PM procedures and methods because there is little need for those procedures and methods, then there must be changes in the roles and responsibilities of the program or project's team using a short-cycle, agile, LOE development or transformation process.

First, the process is short-cycle (one to three months) and agile ("not all the requirements are known up front"), so the process must have these two characteristics.  Having these two characteristics, immediately reduces the role of the PM, as discussed above.  No longer are all of the PM procedures  for a PDR, CDRs, EWBS, IWBS, PMRs, ECOs, weekly status reports, earned value reports, and so on necessary; in fact, they are counterproductive in that they reduce the effectiveness and cost efficiency of the effort.

Second, the emphasis is on creating or transforming a product or system to meet the customer's highest priority System Requirements, which may or may not be known at the start of the effort.  The last clause in the prior sentence is the high-level capability statement for agility.  This has two consequences.
  • There is a requirement for capturing new requirements in every cycle of the effort.  This is within the role of the Systems Engineer.
  • There is a requirement for the customer to prioritize the complete set of requirements at the start of each cycle.
These requirements indicates that the Systems Engineer's responsibility in identifying and managing requirements has increasing importance to any development or transformation effort.
[Sidebar:  There are studies to indicate that in software development efforts 10 to 20 percent of the software developer's effort is spent on functions not called for in the requirements.  Frequently, the customer asked for these to be removed, which costs more time and resources; and none of which produces value for the customer.  But this isn't only a problem for software developers today. A famous example is that at the start of WWII, the M-3 tank came rolling out of the factory with a police siren. No one could explain why since it wasn't in the requirements.  So, having the entire effort focus on the requirements will frequently greatly reduce costs of design and development as well as program management.]

Third, the development of functions or services are tied directly to the Functional Requirements, which link through a traceability matrix to the customer's System Requirements (see my post Types of Requirements for definitions) [though, in some smaller software development efforts, this level of decomposition may not be necessary].  Since, by the definition of a requirement, it must have a metric for when it is met, all verification and validation procedures and methods must be traceable to these metrics.  Additionally, with short-cycles the risk that the designers/developers/implementers will induce defects greatly increases.  An Induced Defect is one that is created in the process of a roll out or update of a system.  The key procedure to reduce the number of induced defects is regression testing--performing all of the same verification and validation procedures and methods used on prior releases.  Within short-cycle and agile processes, linking the V&V procedures and methods to the requirements and regression V&V emphasize both the importance of the requirements--therefore the requirements management system--and the role and responsibilities of the Systems Engineer.

Fourth, because, as discussed above, short-cycle, agile processes require LOE program management, the role of the PM is diminished further.  No longer can the PM "control" the effort by adding to reducing resources to a particular task.  Instead, the Systems Engineer must decide in each cycle how many of the highest priority requirements the team can meet during the next cycle.  Consequently, the PM is really only responsible for working with the suppliers and consultant (both external and internal to the organization), ensuring that the processes, procedures, and methods of the short-cycle, agile process are properly executed, and reporting results to higher management.

These changes in roles and responsibilities are a dramatic shift in the cultural of development and transformation.

Monday, July 18, 2011

Product Architecture Thinking Versus System Architecture Thinking

Cultural Thinking about Architecture
Until the early 1960s, the discipline of architecture (or functional design) focused on the creation/design/ development/implementation of products like buildings, cars, ships, aircraft, and so on.  Actually, other than buildings, most of the Architects were called "functional" designers, or some such term, to differentiate them from detailed designers and engineers/design analysts.  This is part of the reason that most people associate architecture and an architect with the design of homes, skyscrapers, and other buildings, but not with products, systems, or services.  In fact Architects themselves are having a hard time identifying their role.

In the late 1990s, the US Congress mandated that all Federal Departments must have an Enterprise Architecture to purchase new IT equipment and software.  The thrust of the reasoning was that a Department should have an overall plan, which makes a good deal of sense.  I suspect the term "Enterprise Architecture" to denote the unification of the supporting tooling, though they could have used "Enterprise IT Engineering" in the manner of Manufacturing Engineering, which unifies the processes, procedures, functions, and methods of the assembly line.  And yet, Enterprise Architecture means something more, as embodied the the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF).  The architecture team that created this framework to recognize that processes, systems, and other tooling must support the organization's Vision and Mission.  However, its up to the organization and Enterprise Architect to implement processes that can populate and use the data in the framework effectively.  And that's the rub.

Functions vs Processes and Products vs Systems
In the late 1990s and early 2000s the DoD referred to armed drones as Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs), then in the later 2000s, they changed the name of the concept to Unmanned Combat Air Systems (UCAS).  Why?

There are three reasons having to do with a change in western culture, the most difficult changes for any organization.  These are: 1) a change from linear process understanding to linear and cyclic, 2) a change from thinking about a set of functions to understanding a function as part of a process, and a change in thinking from product to system.

Linear vs Cyclic Temporal Thinking
Product thinking is creating something in a temporally linear fashion, that is, creating a product has a start and an end.  D. Boorstin in the first section of his book, The Discovers, discusses the evolution of the concept of time, from its cyclic origins through the creation of a calendar to the numbering of years, to the concept of history as a sequence of events.  To paraphrase Boorstin, for millennia all human thinking and human society was ruled by the yearly and monthly cycles of nature.  Gradually, likely starting with the advent of clans and villages a vague concept of a linear series of events formed.  Still, the cycles of life are still at the core of most societies (e.g., in the east, the Hindu cycles, and the Chinese year, and in the West, Christmas and New Years, and various national holidays). 

The concept of history change cultural thinking from cycles to a progression through a series of linear temporal events (events in time that don't repeat and cause other events to occur).  In several centuries this concept of history permeated Western Culture.  The concept of history broke and flattened the temporal cycles into a flat line of events.  With this concept and with data, information, and knowledge, in the form of books, meant that Western culture now had the ability to fully understand the concept of progress.  Adam Smith applied this concept to manufacturing, in the form of a process, which divided the process into functions (events), and which ended up producing many more products from the same inputs of raw materials, labor, and tooling.

Function vs Process
In the Chapter 1 of Book 1 of An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (commonly called The Wealth of Nations), Adam Smith discussed the concept of  the"Division of Labour".  This chapter is the most important chapter of his book and the concept of the Division of Labor is the most important concept; far more important than "the invisible hand" concept or any of the others.  It is because this concept of a process made from discrete functions is the basis for all of the manufacturing transformation of the Industrial Revolution.  Prior to this, the division of labor was an immature and informal concept; after, many cottage industrialists adopted the concept or were put out of business by those that did.

Adam Smith did this by using a very simple example, the making of straight pins.  In this example he demonstrated that eight men each serving in a specialized function could make more than 10 times the number of pins in a day when compared with each of the men performing all the functions.  He called it the division of labor; we call it "functional specialization".

Functional specialization of skills and tooling permeates Western Culture and has led to greater wealth production than any prior concept that has been created.  Consequently, as Western Civilization accreted knowledge, the researchers, engineering, and skilled workers became more expert in their specialized function and increasingly less aware of the rest of the process.

Currently, most organizations are structured by function, HR, accounting, contracts, finance, marketing or business development, and so on.  In manufacturing there are designers (detailed design engineers), engineers (analysts of the design), manufacturing engineers and other Subject Matter Experts (SMEs).  Each of these functions vie with one another for funding to better optimize their particular function.  And most organizations allocate funding to these functions (or sometimes groups of functions) for the type of optimization.

Unfortunately, allocating funds by function is a very poor way to allocate funds.  There is a principle in Systems Engineering that, "Optimizing the sub-systems, sub-optimizes the system".   J.B. Quinn, in “Managing Innovation: Controlled Chaos”, (Harvard Business Review, May-June 1985), demonstrated this principle, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1--Function vs Process Funding

As shown in Figure 1, at the bottom where you cannot really see it, for every unit of money invested in a function, the organization will get, at best, one unit of money improvement in the total process.  However, if the investment effects more than one function would yield 2(N-1)-1 in total improvement in the process.  So focusing on investing in the process will yield much better results and focusing on the function.  This is the role of the Enterprise Architect, and the organization's process and systems engineer using the Mission Alignment process.  While this point was intuitively understood by manufacturing (e.g., assembly line manufacturing engineering) for well over 150 years, and was demonstrated in 1985, somehow Functional Management is not willing to give up their investment decision perquisite.

Product vs System
Influenced by the Wealth of Nations, from about 1800 on, industries, first in Britain, then across the Western world, and finally globally, used Adam Smith's concept of a process as an assembly line of functions to create more real value than humankind had ever produced before.  But this value was in the form of products--things.  Developing new "things" is a linear process.  It starts with an idea, an invention, or an innovation.  Continues with product development to initial production and marketing.  Finally, if successful, there is a ramp up of production, which continues until superseded by a new product.  This is the Waterfall Process Model. 

The organization that manufactured the product had only the obligation to ensure that the product would meet the specifications the organization advertised at the time the customer purchased the product, and in a very few cases, early in the product's life cycle.  Generally, these specifications were so general, so non-specific, and so opaque that the manufacturing company could not be held responsible.  In fact, a good many companies that are over 100 years old, exist only because they actually supported their product and its specifications.  Their customers turned into their advertising agency.

This model is good for development (what some call product realization) and transformation projects, but the model has two fatal flaws, long term.  The first (as I discuss in my post Systems Engineering, Product/System/Service Implementing, and Program Management) is that the waterfall process is based on the assumption that "All of the requirements have been identified up front"; a heroic assumption to say the least (and generally completely invalid).  The second has equal impact and was caused by the transportation and communications systems of the 1700s to the 1950s.  This flaw is that "Once the product leaves of the factory it is no longer the concern of the manufacturer."

This second flaw in historical/straight line/waterfall thinking effects both the customer and the supplier.  The customer had and has a hard time keeping the product maintained.  For example, most automobile companies in the 1890s did not have dealerships with service departments; in fact they did not have dealerships, as such.  Instead, most automobiles were purchased by going to the factory or ordering by mail.  And even today, most automobile manufacturers don't fully consider the implications of disposal when design a vehicle.  So they are thinking of an automobile as a product not a system or system of systems (which would include the road system and the fuel production and distribution systems.  The flavor of this for the United States is in its disposable economic thinking; in everything from diapers to houses (yes, houses...many times people are purchasing houses in the US housing slump, knocking them down, to build larger much more expensive least in some major metropolitan areas).  Consequently, nothing is built to last, but is a consumable product.

Systems Thinking and The Wheel of Progress
Since the 1960s, there has been a very slow, but growing trend toward cyclic thinking with organizations.  Some of this is due to the impact of the environmental movement, and ecosystems models.  More of this change in thinking is due to the realization that there really is a "wheel of progress".  Like a wheel on a cart, the wheel of progress goes through cycles to move forward.
The "cycle" of the "wheel of progress" is the OODA Loop Process, that is, Observe, Orient, Decide, Act (OODA) loop.  The actual development or transformation of a system occurs during the "Act" function.  This can be either a straight-line, "waterfall-like" process or a short-cycle "RAD-like" process.  However, only when the customer observes the of the transformed system in operation, orients the results of the observation of the system in operation to the organization's Vision and Mission to determine if it is being effective and cost efficient, then deciding to act or not during the rest of the cycle.  The key difference between product and systems thinking is that each "Act" function is followed by an "Observe" function.  In other words, there is a feedback loop to ensure that the output from the process creates the benefits required and that any defects in the final product are caught and rectified in the next cycle before the defect causes harm.  For example, Ford treated is Bronco SUV as a product rather than a system.  "Suddenly", tire blowouts on the SUV contributed to accidents, in some of which the passengers were killed.  If Ford had treated the Bronco as a system, rather than a product, and kept metrics on problems that the dealers found, then they might have caught the problem much earlier.  Again, last year, Toyota, also treating their cars as products rather than systems, found a whole series of problems.

OODA Loop velocity
USAF Col. John Boyd, creator of the OODA Loop felt that the key to success in both aerial duels and on the battlefield is that the velocity through the OODA Loop cycle was faster than your opponent's.  Others have found that this works with businesses and other organizations as well.  This is the seminal reason to go to short cycle development and transformation.  Short cycle in this case would be 1 to 3 months, rather than the "yearly planning cycle" of most organizations.  Consequently, all observations, orientation and deciding should be good enough, not develop for the optimal, there isn't one. [this follows the military axiom that Grant,  Lee, Jackson, and even Patton followed "Doing something now is always better than doing the right thing later".]  Expect change because not all of the requirements are known, and even if they are known, the technological and organizational (business) environment will change within one to three months.  But remember the organization's Mission, and especially its Vision, change little over time; therefore the performance the metrics, the metrics that measure how optimal the current systems and proposed changes are, will change little.  So these metrics are the guides in this environment of continuous change.  Plan and implement for upgrade and change, not stability--this is the essence of an agile systems. 

This is true of hardware systems as well as software.  For example, in 1954, Haworth Office Furniture started building movable wall partitions to create offices.  Steel Case and Herman Miller followed suit in the early 1960s.  At that point, businesses and other organizations could lease all or part of a floor of an office building.  As the needs of the organization changed these partitions could be reconfigured.  This made for agile office space, or office systems (and the bane of most office workers, the cubicle), but allows the organization to make most effective and cost efficient use of the space it has available.

The Role of the Systems Engineering Disciplines
There are significant consequences for the structure of an organization that is attempting to be highly responsive to the challenges and opportunities presented to it, while in its process for achieving its Mission and Vision in a continuously changing operational and technical environment.  It has to operate and transform itself in an environment that is much more like basketball (continuous play) than American football (discrete plays from the scrimmage line with its downs)--apologies to any international readers for this analogy.  This requires continuous cyclic transformation (system transformation) as opposed to straight line transformation (product development). 

Treating Process in Product Thinking Terms
Starting in the 1980s, after the publication of Quality is Free, by Phil Crosby in 1979, the quality movement and quality circles, the concept of Integrated Product Teams (IPTs, which some changed to Integrated Product and Process Teams, IPPTs) organizations have been attempts to move from a focus on product thinking toward a focus on system thinking).  Part of this was in response to the Japanese lean process methods, stemming in part from the work of Edward Deming and others.  First international attempt to is ISO 9000 quality Product Thinking (starting in 2002), though in transition to Systems thinking, since it is a one time straight-through (Six Sigma) methodology, starting with identifying a process or functional problem and ending with a change in the process, function, or supporting system.

Other attempts at systems thinking were an outgrowth of this emphasis on producing quality products (product thinking).  For example, the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach, conceptualized in 1987. The BSC was attempting to look at all dimensions of an organization by measuring multiple dimensions.  It uses four dimensions to measure the performance of an organization and its management instead of measure the performance of an organization on more than the financial dimension.  The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) built layer four, measurement, into the Capability Maturity Model for the same purpose.

In 1990, Michael Hammer began to create the discipline of Business Process Reengineering (BPR), followed by others like Tom Peters and Peter Drucker.  This discipline treats the process as a process rather than as a series of functions.  It is more like the Manufacturing Engineering discipline that seeks to optimize the processes with respect to cost efficiency per unit produced.  For example, Michael Hammer would say that no matter size of an organization, it's books can closed at the end of each day, not by spending two weeks at the end of the business or fiscal year "closing the books".  Or in another example, you can tell if an organization is focused on functions or processes by its budgeting model; either a process budgeting model or a functional budgeting model.

Like the Lean concept, and to some degree, ISO 9000, ITIL,and other standards, BPR does little to link to the organization's Vision and Mission, as Jim Collins discusses in Built to Last (2002); or as he puts the BHAG, BIG HARRY AUDACIOUS GOALS.  Instead, it focuses on cost efficiency (cost reduction through reducing both waste and organizational friction, one type of waste) within the business processes.

System Architecture Thinking and the Enterprise Architect
In 1999, work started on the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) with a very traditional four layer architecture, business process, application, data, and technology.  In 2001, a new version was released that included a fifth layer, the Performance Reference Model.  For the first time the FEAF links all of the organization's processes and enabling and supporting technology to its Vision and Mission.  Further, if properly implemented, it can do this in a measurable manner (see my post Transformation Benefits Measurement, the Political and Technical Hard Part of Mission Alignment and Enterprise Architecture).  This enables the Enterprise Architect to perform in the role that I have discussed in several of my posts and in comments in some of the groups in the LinkedIn site.  These are decision support for investment decision-making processes and support for the governance and policy management processes (additionally, I see the Enterprise Architect as responsible for the Technology Change Management process for reasons that I discuss in Technology Change Management: An Activity of the Enterprise Architect).   Further, successful organizations will use a Short Cycle investment decision-making (Mission Alignment) and implementing (Mission Implementation) process, for reasons discussed above. [Sidebar: there may be a limited number of successful project that need multiple years to complete.  For example, large buildings, new designs for an airframe of aircraft, large ships--all very large construction effort, while some like construction or reconstruction of highways can be short cycle efforts--much to the joy of the motoring public.]   The Enterprise Architect (EA), using the OODA Loop pattern, has continuous measured feedback as the change operates.  Given that there will be a learning curve for all changes in operation; still, the Enterprise Architect is in the best position to provide guidance as to what worked and what other changes are needed to further optimize the organization's processes and tooling to support its Mission and Vision.  Additionally, because the EA is accountable for the Enterprise Architecture, he or she has the perspective of entire organization's processes and tooling, rather than just a portion and is in the position to make recommendations on investments and governance.

System Architecture Thinking and the Systems Engineer and System Architect
One consequence of the short-cycle processes is that all short-cycle efforts are "level of effort" based.  Level of Effort is a development or transformation effort is executed using a given a set level of resources over the entire period of the effort.  Whereas in a waterfall-like "Big Bang" process scheduling the resources to support the effort is a key responsibility of the effort (and the PM), with the short-cycle the work must fit into the cycles. With the waterfall, the PM could schedule all of the work by adding resources or lengthened the time required to design, develop, implement and verify; now the work must fit into a given time and level of resource.  Now, the PM can't do either because they are held constant.
 If, in order to make an agile process, we use axiom that "Not all of the requirements are known at the start of the effort", rather than the other way around, then any scheduling of work beyond the current cycle is an exercise in futility because as the number of known requirements increases, some of the previously unknown requirements will be of higher priority for the customer than any of the known requirements.  Since a Mission of a supplier is to satisfy the needs of the customer, each cycle will work on the highest priority requirements, which means that some or many of the known requirements will be "below the line" on each cycle.  The final consequence of this is that some of the originally known requirements will not be met by the final product.  Instead, the customer will get the organization's highest priority requirements fulfilled.  I have found that when this is the case, the customer is more delighted with the product, takes greater ownership of the product, and finds resources to continue with the lower priority requirements.

On the other hand, not fulfilling all on the initially known requirements (some of which were not real requirements, some of which contradicted other requirements) gives PMs, the contracts department, accountants, lawyers, and other finance engineers the pip!  Culturally,generally  they are incapable of dealing in this manner; their functions are not built to handle it when the process is introduced.  Fundamentally making the assumption that "Not all the requirements are known up front" makes the short-cycle development process Systems Requirements-based instead of Programmatic Requirements-based.  This is the major stumbling block to the introduction of this type of process because it emphasizes the roles of the Systems Engineer and System Architect and de-emphasizes the role of the PM.

The customer too, must become accustomed to the concept, though in my experience on many efforts, the once the customer unders the customer's role in this process, the customer becomes delighted.  I had one very high-level customer that said after the second iteration through one project, "I would never do any IT effort again that does not use this process."